“The process of democratization is a failure in Southeast Asia.” Discuss with reference to Two Southeast Asian States except Malaysia.
“The process of democratization is a failure in Southeast Asia.” Discuss with reference to Two Southeast Asian States except Malaysia.
Khairul Faizi bin Ahmad Kamil
Thailand has a long political history that began with the Thai monarchy and the monarchy of Siam. Starting with the Sukhothai Kingdom from 1238 - 1448, Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351 - 1767) Next Thonburi Kingdom (1768 - 1782), Rattanakosin Kingdom (6 April 1782), Constitutional Monarchy began on 24 June 1932 and now Later Constitution 24 August 2007
It all changed when the 'democratic revolution' in 1932, the country officially became a democratic country under a constitutional monarchy with a prime minister as the head of government and the first written constitution was issued. Politics of Thailand at this time held in the framework of constitutional monarchy, which the Prime Minister became the head of the government and the king is the head of state. Judicial departments are independent from the branches of the executive and legislative branches.
Since the political reform of the absolute king of the country in 1932, Thailand has experienced 17 constitution and charter. During this time, the form of ever-changing state of the military dictatorship to democracy election choices, but all this is aimed to recognize the king as a Hereditary head of state
1.1 Development of Thai Politics After the 1997 Constitution until 2006
Constitution of 1997 was the first constitution drafted by the Assembly draft of the Constitution of the selected members of the public, then it is called "People's Constitution". This constitution was replaced Constitution of 1991. 1997 Constitution created a bicameral legislation of the House of Representatives consists of 500 seats and the Senate with 200 seats. 1997 Constitution by a symbol of the beginning of democracy in Thailand. It indirectly gave the Thai people to choose a leader for both chambers is through public voting. In addition to the successful upholding of human rights of these changes have also increased the stability of elected governments.
All members of the House of Representatives are selected through a first-past-the-post, which is only one candidate can be elected by simple majority vote in one area. Members of the Senate-Garonne is selected on the basis of region, a region can provide more than one Senator depending on the number of people. Members of the House of Representatives serve four years in parliament, while members of the Senate term is six years. Not only is changed but the court system includes a constitutional court that its jurisdiction includes constitutional parliamentary acts, royal decrees, and political matters.
The democratic system established in Thailand has started the general election in January 2001 with the first elections under the 1997 Constitution, be deemed to be the most open elections are free and most corrupt in Thai history. This election has seen how Thaksin Shinawatra, a telecom entrepreneur and the richest man in Thailand has been chosen as the Prime Minister of Thailand by his party Thai Rak Thai party (TRT). The victory of Thaksin initially quite proud of the people of Thailand, but many of the political crisis arising after that.
Although Thaksin success to captured the hearts of the rural population by providing various facilities, especially education and health, but it did not work to close the eyes of the people to evaluate the errors and shortcomings that have occurred during the Thaksin administration. It becomes even worse when Thaksin linked to various charges of corruption and fraud have achieved victory in elections in February 2005 which won 376 out of 500 seats while the management of elections tainted by alleged fraud.
Thaksin's rule has led to many conflicts and crises in Thailand. Thaksin has created tension with the court when the accused were planning to form a presidential government in Thailand. It is a chronicle that pose a threat to the palace and caused dissatisfaction among the people who support the monarchy. Thaksin also was a dishonor the palace of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. In many occasions, King Bhumipol Thaksin is not a priority. Instead put Thaksin heads overseas. Thaksin also did not attend the ceremony attended by King Bhumipol.
Weakness was also seen when Thaksin failed to stem the insurgency in southern Thailand, which increase in the series of violence and oppression. Among the events of the military assault on the mosque Kerisek on 28 April 2004 which claimed 32 lives and issues of Tak Bai on October 25, 2004 which killed 87 civilians following the military action in disperse public gatherings. As a result, Thaksin failed to win the hearts of all Thai people when they do not support the majority of Thai Rak Thai party and failed to win majority of seats in Southern Thailand in the 2005 election. On the other hand, Southern Thai people prefer to have a candidate who is pro-government and the palace.
Thaksin also said to be ruled on for a profit rather than to protect national dignity and welfare of its citizens. Between Thaksin is done by building a business empire and imperial politics in Thailand is strong. He is a telecommunications tycoon. Share Shincorp telecommunications firms have been sold to Singapore and Thailand were blamed for compromising the dignity of Thailand for the money. Thaksin also corporate governance practices in which many decisions decided by monetary gain, without regard to national dignity and life.
Thaksin is seen practicing nepotism. Many from Thaksin relatives and friends in the school appointed the army, police and business. People in the city of Bangkok and the city lost confidence in him. Instead he liked the rural population because a lot of money and development sprinkle.
As a result of the weakness of the Thaksin administration, troops led by General Sonthi Boonyaratglin has done a coup on 19 September 2006, which received strong support of the people and thus undermine the democratic process in Thailand. Military use of reason to end the political crisis but it has resulted in the democratic system has been corrupted. Action coup by the military that do not shed blood, and no casualties have been canceled elections that will take place, suspend the constitution, dissolve parliament, prevent political protests, declared martial law and arrested Cabinet members.
1.2 Actions After Seizure Powers
Without doubt, military coup is not a good phenomenon for the Government of Thailand or any other third world countries. Is a rare occurrence of military coups in the status of a developed country. Coup in Thailand should not happen again because there have been 56 times the booty there. Thailand should have tried to do military coup.
After the coup carried out, an interim constitution which is very short, and inline panel appointed to draft a permanent constitution. Thai soldiers also elect a 250 member law, which was criticized as "generals room" without representation of the common people. In the draft interim constitution, the junta allowed to slip off the head of the prime minister at any time. Legislation is not permitted to hold confidence vote against the Cabinet and the public are prohibited from filing KOMAN the bill. Interim constitution was then followed by permanent constitution on 24 August 2007, which abolished the 1997 Constitution of Thailand. Military command was also withdrawn in January 2007 but still remains filtering media and accused of human rights violations. Prohibition of political activity lifted in July 2007, following the dissolution of Thai Rak Thai party on 30 May The new Constitution approved by referendum on 19 August, which would restore the democratic election on December 23, 2007.
1.3 Effects Of Thailand military coup
Although the original intention of Thai soldiers were intended to ensure that the government in Thailand to be more safe and effective, it has caused an adverse political crisis. Indirectly, the haphazard system of democracy in Thailand until today.
In 2008, there has been a political crisis that involves a conflict between the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) with the government party the People Power Party (PPP) under the leadership of Samak Sundaravej and Somchai Wongsawat. It is a link to the Thai political crisis of 2005-2006, where the PAD protest against government Thai Rak Thai party (TRT) leader Thaksin Shinawatra. This protest is seen as a result of the practice of cronyism, abuse of power and corruption by the three Prime Ministers.
The crisis began when the PAD claimed that Samak and Somchai as a proxy of Thaksin. In the year 2006, the PAD to bring the fight to the coup in Thailand, 2006. A military junta appointed a committee to rewrite the Constitution of Thailand while the junta appointed a court to dissolve the Thai Rak Thai and Thaksin's ban from politics for five years. Many TRT members joined the PPP, who later won the parliamentary elections held by the junta. PAD which has dissolved itself voluntarily after the coup, re-establish themselves and continue to protest against the new PPP government.
During this crisis, the Royal Thai Army has rejected the government's directive to enforce the Emergency Decree after PAD besiege the Government House. And also refused to follow the instructions to evict the PAD after they surrounded the Suvarnabhumi Airport. What happens instead suggests the PAD to leave the military airport and the army wants the government to resign, but was rejected by the government and PAD leaders.
In December 2008, the Constitutional Court ruled that the PPP and the other two parties in the coalition government are guilty of the alleged fraud during elections last year. The parties are ordered disbanded and its leaders are prohibited from holding political post for five years. Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat agreed to resign and the protestors agreed to circulate the PAD from the airport.
2008 also witness the anti-government rally protests Samak Sundaravej because the protestor claimed Samak as a proxy for Thaksin because Thaksin prefer to be Prime Minister of Thailand as to safeguard their property in Thailand. Group from the north led by former Speaker of the Parliament of Thailand, Somchai wants Yongyuth Tiyapairat the acting prime minister became the new prime minister. Crisis involving Samak ends when the 9 September 2008, a panel of nine members of the Constitutional Court decided unanimously to deprive him of office after they found Samak guilty of violating Article 267 of the Constitution in 2007 it plans to host the cooking while still holding the post of Prime Minister. Samak Sundaravej was forced to resign on September 17, 2008 after the Constitution Court found him guilty of receiving payment for the appearance of a cooking program.
PAD protests maintain to hold anti-government protests and at the same time continuing threat to peace and democracy in Thailand. Thai police arrest PAD leader, Chaiwat Sinsuwongse in October 2008 resulted in a more aggressive anti-government protests. Police have fired tear gas to disperse protesters who besieged the Parliament building to prevent the inaugural speech Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat. Constitution of Thailand set a new prime minister must be delivered the keynote address at the Parliament before the new government can begin the basic administration of the country.
PAD leader, Sondhi Limthongkul urged Thailand citizens to join a massive protest on Sunday, November 23, 2008, to topple the government with the besieged Suvarnabhumi Airport to prevent Prime Minister Somchai Wongsawat home from the summit of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in Lima, Peru . Not only that but on 27 November 2008, PAD supporters also surrounded the Don Mueang Airport, which became the acting prime minister. Three injured after two grenades exploded while being anti-government supporters marched on the airport road in Don Mueang. On December 2, 2008, grenade attack on the People's Alliance Democracy (PAD) at the Don Muang Airport caused Ronnachai Chaisri killed and 22 injured. The Siege of the airport was causing the water transportation system almost paralyzed Thailand.
On December 2, 2008 the court decided to convene the People's Power Party (PPP) is Guilty of the charges of vote fraud Sulawesi the elections in December 2007 and thus prohibits the Prime Minister of Thailand, Somchai Wongsawat from active politics for five years. Nine Judges, headed Chat Chonlaworn banned also rates the other two parties in the Coalition government, Chart Thai and Matchima Thippatai. This court decision was greeted with joy by PAD Supporters and announced the termination of all THEIR protest on 3 December 2008 at 10 am. End of this protest on December 15, 2008, Abhisit Vejjajiva of the Democratic Party and was appointed as the new Prime Minister of Thailand.
1.4 Continuous riots and protests
Although Abhisit Vejjajiva was appointed as Prime Minister of Thailand at the end of December 2009 and the PAD had announced that the protest had ended, but it did not stop the continuous protests in which a group of people who called themselves the Red Shirt Group has entered into Pattaya for dropping Abhisit April 2009. Group red shirt is a supporter of Thaksin present themselves as the United Front of Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD). This riot occurred at the location of the ASEAN Summit meeting on the 14th at the Pattaya Exhibition and Convention Hall (Peach) and gathered at the Royal Cliff Grand Hotel & Spa, Pattaya beach, southern Thailand. These riots have led many leaders of ASEAN countries have been locked in a hotel as South Korean president, Lee Myung-bak and Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso is the Prime Minister of Cambodia Hun Sen and the Sultan of Brunei, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah.
These protests continued in 2010 when on February 26, 2010, the Supreme Court of Thailand of Thaksin's assets seized some 46.3 billion baht (RM4.7 billion). This court decision has led the United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) announced it would hold a large protest march on March 13, 2010 in downtown Bangkok and it has happened in peace. However, on 10 April 2010, the situation turned violent when protestors attempted to respond to dislodge the government soldiers set up their cause. 21 people were killed and at least 800 others were injured. It started when on April 8, 2010, Abhisit has declared a state of emergency in Bangkok and five adjacent regions. This allows the military to detain anyone considered ancamaan to national security, filter media, and avoid gathering more than five people.
The highlight of the attacks against the Reds this group on 19 May, the Army conducted a bitter attack by APC and then beat the defense in red shirt causing five people were killed, including an Italian journalist and two other soldiers were seriously injured in a grenade attack. The heads of protesters surrendered to police in order to avoid prolonged bloodshed. On May 25, 2010, the Criminal Court of Thailand approved a warrant of arrest for inciting and financing the large-scale protests that sparked the chaos and deaths of more than 88 people. Thaksin Shinawatra said the group sponsoring the protest red shirt in the middle of Bangkok from March 12 May 2010.
2. Democracy History of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia is a democratic republic with a presidential system. In Indonesia's political system, the president is the head of state and heads of state at the same time, other than the commander in chief of the Indonesian National Army. Constitution of Indonesia approved the division of powers between executive, legislature and judiciary. The government has executive powers. Legislative power jointly owned by the government and the House of Representatives. The judiciary is independent from the executive and legislative branches.
Before independence, Indonesia had invaded several times by foreign powers such as Holland, Germany and Japan. Dutch dominated Indonesia as a colony until World War II, initially through the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and then directly colonized by the Dutch since the beginning of the 19th century. During World War II, the Dutch colonized by Germany, while Japan controlled Indonesia. Once captured in Indonesia in 1942, the Japanese discovered that the fighters Indonesia is a trading partner willing to cooperate and are willing to exert a hero when needed. Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, KH Mas Mansur, and Ki Hajar Dewantara subsequently given an award by the Emperor of Japan in 1943.
Old Order era between 1950-1959 is the era where the president Sukarno ruled the policy constitutional law while the Republic of Indonesia 1950. This period lasted from August 17, 1950 until July 6, 1959. Era is also known as the Era of Democracy Liberal.
The Basic Law of the Republic of Indonesia, known as UUDS 1950, the constitution is accepted in the Republic of Indonesia since August 17, 1950 until the issuance of Presidential Decree 5 July 1959. Since 17 August 1950, Indonesia was ruled by the National Legal Policy of the Republic of Indonesia 1950 while professing a parliamentary cabinet system.
Constituent delegated the task to make laws according to the mandate of the new policy UUDS 1950. However, until the year 1959 this body cannot make a new constitution. Then President Sukarno delivering conception of Guided Democracy in the House of Representatives election results that contain the idea to go back to the 1945 Constitution. Indonesia is the country's constituent agencies are tasked to form the Association of Law or a new constitution to replace UUDS 1950. Formation of the new Constitution mandated in Article 134 UUDS 1950. Finally, Sukarno issued a decree on July 5, 1959, to dissolve the Constituent.
Guided democracy (1959-1966) is a democracy that had existed in Indonesia, are all based on the results and thought leaders who are up to no labeling Dictatorship Era. On July 5, 1959, and President Sukarno dissolved the parliament set the Constitution in the presidential decree. Sukarno also dissolve the Constituent that is assigned to the Legal Policy set a new one, and contrary to state law re-enactment of 1945, with the slogan "Back to the Constitution" 45. " Sukarno strengthen the hands of the Armed Forces with the lifting of the military generals to positions of importance.
PKI welcome "Guided Democracy" Sukarno with a warm and assuming that the PKI has a federal mandate for such conceptions of nationalism, religion (Islam) and NASAKOM called communism. During this era, the military struggle in West Papua by Indonesia in 1962 and received full support from the leadership of the PKI. The era of "Guided Democracy" has also created a consensus among the leadership of the PKI and the national bourgeoisie in suppressing ethnic movements independent workers and farmers, failed to solve the problems of political and economic urgency. Declining export revenues, foreign exchange reserves decline, inflation continues to rise and corruption of bureaucrats and the military became epidemic.
President Suharto begins the "New Order" (1966-1998) in the world of Indonesian politics and dramatically, change the foreign policy and the state pursued by Sukarno at the end of his reign. New Order were a reference to the reign of President Suharto in Indonesia. New Order of the Old Order replaces the reference to the Soekarno era. Just choose the repair order and economic development as its main objectives and policies through the administrative structure dominated by the military, but with the advice of Western-educated economist. However, the House of Representatives (DPR) and People's Consultative Council is not functioning effectively.
New Order lasted from 1966 to 1998. During this period, the Indonesian economy growing rapidly, although this is happening simultaneously with the rampant corruption in the country. In addition, the gap between rich and poor people are also more broadly.
There are many advantages to the implementation of the New Order regime, including the growth of GDP per capita of Indonesia in 1968, only U.S. $ 70 and in 1996 reached more than U.S. $ 1,000. However, there are many causes of the problem That caused the conflict in the government and the society in Which it has fueled corruption, collusion, nepotism. Billions of dollars ended up in the hands of friends and relatives Cock widespread cronyism and corruption. Indonesia is the uneven development and the emergence of the development gap between center and regions, partly because most of the local wealth sucked into the center, increasing social inequality (the differences are not evenly distributed income of the rich and the poor), press freedom is very limited.
Post-Suharto Era or the Era of Reform in Indonesia begin in mid-1998, precisely when President Suharto resigned on May 21, 1998 and replaced vice president, BJ Habibie. This era continues to this day with a total of four people have been experiencing the President of Indonesia.
2.1 The role of the President of Indonesia in Improving Democracy.
From 1998 to 2001, Indonesia had three presidents of Baharuddin Jusuf Habibie or BJ Habiebie, Abdurrahman Wahid, otherwise known as Gus Dur and Megawati Sukarnoputri. In 2004, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono became president of Indonesia, which ruled until now remained. Indonesia's president has played the role to further democracy in Indonesia, although its role is small.
Baharuddin Jusuf Habibie or BJ Habibie is the third President of the Republic of Indonesia. He succeeded Suharto, who stepped down from the presidency on May 21, 1998. In October 1999, due to several charges imposed on him, he decided not to contest again for the presidency, and was replaced by Abdurrahman Wahid is elected by the People's Parliament (MPR), the 1999 General Election. President BJ Habibie is Indonesia, which has paved the way for democracy in Indonesia to allow the establishment of a new political party in Indonesia, after previously only three coalitions are allowed to participate in elections in Indonesia.
The second president of Indonesia, Gus Dur is not even appear to give full attention to questions of government, he managed to change many aspects of the administration of Indonesia. He also abolished most of the laws that discriminate against the Chinese of Indonesia. This discrimination arises when the New Order era when the people of Indonesia a total of about 5 million people associated with Communism. Restrictions on freedom of speech, freedom of the press and restrictions on celebrating cultural festivals are also imposed on the Chinese. The only Chinese language newspaper Harian Indonesia allowed is partly written in Indonesian language. This newspaper is organized and supervised by the Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI), the Indonesian military. In fact, Chinese traditional religion forbidden by the religion of Confucianism lost as a result of government recognition. Gus Dur also dissolve the country's Information Ministry is restricting press freedom for decades, and encouraging the development of intellectual activities and the arts.
Megawati Sukarnoputri initiated action to uphold democracy in Indonesia when he was not authorized by the Suharto regime for contesting the general elections in 1997. This prohibition has been tremendous support from the people to Megawati to forming their own political party, the Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P) and use it as a platform to oppose the autocratic Suharto regime are considered. PDI-P became one of the most important symbol of the democratic movement in Indonesia at that time. Under the Megawati government, restoration of democratic process that began under Habibie and Wahid continued, albeit slow and uncertain. Megan considers its main role as a united country, and rarely interfere in the government. The military, disgraced at the fall of Suharto, managed to recover most of their influence. Corruption is still rampant despite Megawati rarely involved with it.
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is the President of Indonesia is the sixth and the first elected President of the Republic of Indonesia became the first directly elected by amending the Basic Law of the Republic of Indonesia, 1945. SBY administration to give priority to the Alliance maslaah difficult, corruption, and nepotism (KKN), apart from the problem of global terrorism. The problem of narcotics, gambling, human trafficking and also be highlighted. Tsunami in Aceh and North Sumatra which occurred on 26 December 2004 caused the price and generate a sense of empathy from the various parties around the world.
2.2 Free To Form Indonesia Politics Party
Starting with the reforms undertaken by the people of Indonesia in 1998, President Baharuddin Jusuf Habibie or BJ Habibie, has been identified as open space to the people for setting up a new political party in Indonesia. It is a positive step made by him and was greeted with so well when many political party has a emerge base on various ideology.
Indonesia Raya Options General Meeting held on June 7, 1999 under the royal Jusuf Habibie is the first choice of public highway which was held after the fall of New Order. A total of 48 political Parti including new and old political Parti choice accompany this feast. This proves that unlicensed Indonesian kingdom has opened the scope of democracy in the election. Five of the political Party which is the largest Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (Parti Demokrasi Indonesia – Perjuangan), Golkar Party (Parti Golongan Karya Baru), the United Development Party (Parti Persatuan Pembangunan), the National Awakening Party (Parti Kebangkitan Bangsa) and National Mandate Party ( Parti Amanat Nasional).
Among these are the Parti-Parti join in shaping the political empire of Indonesia after the 2009 elections namely the Democratic Party was founded on September 9, 2001 and ratified on August 27, 2003. The establishment of this party closely associated with the intention to bring Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, who was then the Coordinating Minister for Political and Security Affairs under President Megawati, became president. Because of this, the Democratic Party strongly associated with the figure Yudhoyono. Both, the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), formerly known as Justice Party (PK), is an Islamic-based political party in Indonesia. MCC was founded in Jakarta on 20 April 2002 and is a continuation of the Justice Party (PK), which was established in Jakarta on July 20, 1998. All three, the National Mandate Party (PAN) which is based on "Morals Politics Religion Based Bringing Grace to Sekalian Nature" has been founded on August 23, 1998. Chairman today is the Hatta Rajasa. Chairman of the Advisory Council of the Party headed by Amien Rais. The four are the National Awakening Party (PKB), also has been established in Jakarta on July 23, 1998 which was declared by the ‘kiai’s NU, like Munasir Ali, Ilyas Ruchiyat, Abdurrahman Wahid, A. Mustofa Bisri, and A. Muhith Muzadi. Only the Golkar Party and the United Development Party (PPP) formed before rather than the enactment of political reform in Indonesia that forms when the kingdom on this.
When the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, Great Indonesia Movement Party and the People's Conscience Party has formed coalition dissidents in Indonesia on when these and all Parti politics is that ditubuhkan after the age change in 1998. Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P) created in 1999 and led by Megawati Sukarnoputri. People's Conscience Party, or Party Hanura pioneered by Wiranto with national leaders on November 14, 2006.
There are many more political party formed in the era after the reform but did not win anything during 2009 elections chair. Among other things, the Reform Star Party (PBR), Reform Star Party is the new name of the United Development Party Reform (PPP Reform) which was declared on January 20, 2002, Nahdatul Ummah Unity Party of Indonesia (March 5, 2003), Ulama National Awakening Party (November 21 2006) and Marhaenisme Indonesian National Party (May 20, 2002).
It is very different from the implementation of the election of 1977 to 1997 otherwise known as the General Election New Order. At present, only three political parties are allowed to compete, and all won by the Party of the Work Group (Golkar).
2.3 Opinion leaders outside the country to democracy in Indonesia.
The development of the democratic process in Indonesia has received much attention, and views of leaders of foreign countries. Among other things, is from Germany, the Chairman of CDU-CSU Parliamentary Group, Volker Kauder, the Vice President Boediono held on August 25, 2010. He praised the development of democracy in Indonesia is seen improving although it is a country of Muslim majority.
Minister outside the United States, Hillary Clinton also expressed positive views on the development of democracy in Indonesia. In a meeting with President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono on 19 February 2009 at the office of President of Indonesia, Hillary admitted that Indonesia is a model of how Islam, democracy, modernity, and women's rights can grow together and in harmony in a country.
Head of the International Association of Muslim Scholars Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi also praises implementation of democracy in Indonesia has been running. According to him, the democracy is evidenced by respecting the principles of distinction and freedom has been adopted by a majority of the religious people of Indonesia Islam. This has been submitted to the Chief MPRRI Hidayat Nur Wahid at January 9, 2007.
From the applicable democratic development in Thailand and Indonesia, we can see how the difference between the two countries. Thailand is still struggling with internal problems the country to stabilize the country because that is still prevailing chaos and pandemonium. Military involvement in the solution to the set of the people and the protests of the people still in place and this will lead to democracy challenged.
Contrary to what is happening in Indonesia. Under the leadership of new President of Indonesia, the development of democracy is very good to get praise from various countries and NGO leaders. It is due to the seriousness of the new leadership to stabilize the government, provide the best service to the people and made plans for the future of the country.
Therefore, I can conclude that the process of democratization is a failure in Thailand but it is a good improvement in Indonesia.
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